Resources: Internship Resources

Internship Research

As part of our ongoing research projects on college internships, CCWT is regularly reviewing the literature on internships across national and disciplinary boundaries.  A summary of the literature based on a 2017 review is available here, and on this webpage we provide some of the more recent and robust studies on internships in higher education.  This is a work in progress and newly identified papers and reports will be continually added to this webpage.

Impacts of internships on student outcomes | Internships as work-based learning | Legal Issues & Internships | Barriers & Obstacles to Internships | Internships & Employability | Employer Demand for Interns | Student experiences with internships | Discipline-specific studies

Impacts of internships on student outcomes

Knouse, S. B., Tanner, J. R., & Harris, E. W. (1999). The relation of college internships, college performance, and subsequent job opportunity. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36(1), 35-43.

McHugh, P. P. (2017). The impact of compensation, supervision and work design on internship efficacy: implications for educators, employers and prospective interns. Journal of Education and Work, 30(4), 367-382.

Parker III, E. T., Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. K. E., & Pascarella, E. T. (2016). The differential effects of internship participation on end-of-fourth-year GPA by demographic and institutional characteristics. Journal of College Student Development, 57(1), 104-109.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Melo, A. I., Dias, G. P., Brito, E., & Seabra, D. (2018). The million-dollar question: can internships boost employment? Studies in Higher Education, 43(1), 2-21.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Seabra, D., Melo, A. I., Brito, E., & Dias, G. P. (2016). Stairway to employment? Internships in higher education. Higher Education, 72(6), 703-721.

Taylor, M. S. (1988). Effects of college internships on individual participants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 393.

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Internships as work-based learning

Jackson, D. (2018). Developing graduate career readiness in Australia: shifting from extra-curricular internships to work-integrated learning. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning,19(1), 23-35.

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Legal Issues & Internships

Curiale, J. L. (2009). America's new glass ceiling: unpaid internships, the Fair Labor Standards Act, and the urgent need for change. Hastings LJ61, 1531.

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Barriers & Obstacles to Internships

Finley, A., & McNair, T. (2013). Assessing underserved students' engagement in high-impact practices. Washington, DC. Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Hora, M.T., Wolfgram, M. & Chen, Z. (2019). Closing the doors of opportunity: How financial, sociocultural, and institutional barriers intersect to inhibit participation in college internships. WCER Working Paper No. 2019-8. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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Internships & Employability

Jackson, D. (2013). The contribution of work-integrated learning to undergraduate employability skill outcomes. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education 14(2), 99-115.

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Employer Demand for Interns

Nunley, J. M., Pugh, A., Romero, N., & Seals, R. A. (2016). College major, internship experience, and employment opportunities: Estimates from a résumé audit. Labour Economics, 38, 37-46.

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Student experiences with internships

Hergert, M. (2009). Student perceptions of the value of internships in business education. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), 2(8), 9-14.

Hora, M. T., Parrott, E., & Her, P. (2020). How do students conceptualise the college internship experience? Towards a student-centered approach to designing and implementing internships. Journal of Education and Work, 1-19.

O’Connor, H., & Bodicoat, M. (2017). Exploitation or opportunity? Student perceptions of internships in enhancing employability skills. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 38(4), 435-449.

Ross, C. M., & Beggs, B. A. (2007). Campus recreational sports internships: A comparison of student and employer perspectives. Recreational Sports Journal, 31(1), 3-13.

Zehr, S. and Korte, R. (2020). Student internship experiences: learning about the workplace, Education + Training.

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Discipline-specific studies

Arts & Media

Frenette, A. (2015). The Internship Divide: The Promise and Challenges of Internships in the Arts. Special Report. Bloomington, IN: Strategic National Arts Alumni Project.

Frenette, A. (2013). Making the intern economy: Role and career challenges of the music industry intern. Work and Occupations, 40(4), 364-397.

Martin, N. D., & Frenette, A. (2017). Lost in transition: College resources and the unequal early-career trajectories of arts alumni. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(12), 1487-1509.

Business & Management

Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlager, T. (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career success: are they related? Journal of Marketing Education, 22(1), 45-53.

Knemeyer, A. M., & Murphy, P. R. (2002). Logistics internships: Employer and student perspectives. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 32(2), 135-152.

Knouse, S. B., & Fontenot, G. (2008). Benefits of the business college internship: A research review. Journal of Employment Counseling, 45(2), 61-66.

Moghaddam, J. M. (2011). Perceived effectiveness of business internships: Student expectations, experiences, and personality traits. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 287-303.


Doel, S. (2009). Fostering student reflection during engineering internships. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 10(3), 163-177.

Garcia, R., & Puig, J. (2011). A model for improving the quality of student internship placements in engineering degrees. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 4(1), 4-11.

Goller, M, Harteis, C, Gijbels, D, Donche, V. (2020). Engineering students' learning during internships: Exploring the explanatory power of the job demands‐control‐support model. J Eng Educ.1– 18.

Information Technology & Computer Science

Carpenter, D. A. (2003). Meaningful information systems internships. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(2), 201-209.

Tourism & Hospitality

Busby, G. (2003). Tourism degree internships: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 55(3), 319-334.

Ko, W. H. (2008). Training, satisfaction with internship programs, and confidence about future careers among hospitality students: A case study of universities in Taiwan. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 7(4), 1-15.

Stansbie, P., Nash, R., & Chang, S. (2016). Linking internships and classroom learning: A case study examination of hospitality and tourism management students. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 19, 19-29.

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